Why in news?

UNESCO inscribes Karnataka’s Sacred Ensembles of Hoysalas in World Heritage list.

About Sacred Ensembles of Hoysalas:

  • The ancient site was part of UNESCO’s Tentative list since 2014.
  • The Hoysalas temples showcase India’s rich cultural and historical heritage.
  • The property encompasses the temple complexes in Southern India dates from the 12th to 13th centuries.
  • Sacred Ensembles of Hoysalas at Belur :
  • It is located in the Hassan district of Karnataka
  • The Hoysala temples of Belur are renowned for their exquisite architecture and intricate stone carvings.
  • The temples depict the architectural prowess of the Hoysala dynasty.
  • They ruled over the region between the 10th and 14th centuries.
  • Chennakesava Templeis one of the most significant temples.
  • It was constructed by King Vishnuvardhana of the Hoysala dynasty in the 12th century.
  • It was built to commemorate his victory over the Cholas.
  • The other temples part of the Sacred Ensembles of Hoysala at Belur are Kappe Chennigaraya Temple, Veeranarayana Temple, and Ranganayaki Temple which are relatively smaller in size than Chennakesava Temple.
  • Sacred Ensembles of Hoysala at Halebid:
  • Intricate carvings, finely detailed sculptures, and star-shaped architectural plans are the prime features of Sacred Ensembles of Hoysala at Halebid.
  • The main Hoysaleswara temple was built in the 12th century during the reign of King Vishnuvardhana.
  • It is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • The second Kedareshwara Temple showcases remarkable Hoysala architecture and stone carvings.


  • National Engineers’ Day serves as a reminder of the vital role engineers play in shaping our world and advancing society through innovation and expertise.
  • National Engineers’ Day is celebrated on September 15 to honor the birth anniversary of Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya.
  • He was born in September 15, 1861 in Muddenahalli, Karnataka.
  • Sir Visvesvaraya was an outstanding engineer and a visionary statesman.
  • He made remarkable contributions to the fields of engineering, irrigation, and infrastructure.
  • Sir Visvesvaraya’s pioneered work in irrigation engineering, particularly the design and construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara dam in Karnataka.
  • It stands as a testament to his engineering prowess.
  • His innovations greatly contributed to the prosperity of the region by enhancing the water supply for agriculture and promoting economic growth.
  • In recognition of his exceptional contributions, Sir Visvesvaraya was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honor, in 1955.
  • His dedication to engineering excellence and nation-building continues to inspire generations of engineers.
  • Engineering for a sustainable future: Theme for 2023
  • The theme for National Engineers’ Day in 2023 is ‘Engineering for a Sustainable Future.’



Why In news?

Indian Coast Guard Conducts ‘Operation Sajag’ Coastal Security Drill to Strengthen Maritime Safety and Awareness.

About Operation Sajag:

  • This drill serves to revalidate the coastal security mechanism and raise awareness among fishermen at sea.
  • The Indian Coast Guard conducted ‘Operation Sajag,’ a Coastal Security Drill along the Western Coast.
  • This drill serves to revalidate the coastal security mechanism and raise awareness among fishermen at sea.
  • It has extensive checks and verification of documents and crew passes for all fishing boats, barges, and sea-going craft are carried out.
  • Other measures include issuance of biometric cards for fishermen, color-coding of fishing boats by state, staffing of fish landing centers, access control at entry/exit checkpoints, coastal mapping, designation of specific marine band frequencies for security agencies, and marine police training by the Indian Coast Guard.
  • The Sajag drill occurs monthly for one day, involving all Coastal Security stakeholders.


Why in news?

Civil Aviation Minister inaugurates Udaan Bhawan, pilot e-wallet facility in Delhi.

‘Udaan Bhawan,’ an integrated office complex:

  • The Udaan Bhawan will house, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS), Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB), Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA) and Airports Authority of India (AAI).
  • The officials said that Udaan Bhawan has been constructed at Safdarjung Airport, New Delhi.
  • It will facilitate better coordination between various regulatory authorities under Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA).

e-wallet facility:

  • The e-wallet will act as a prepaid wallet.
  • It will be particularly useful for processing of fees for various regulatory approvals in the Bharatkosh portal.
  • It would enable registered users to add funds in advance.


 About the new Parliament and its gates:

  • The new Parliament building has six gates which have been named after creatures of which some are real and some are mythological.
  • The six gates are namely, Gaja Dwar, Ashwa Dwar, Garuda Dwar, Makar Dwar, Shardula Dwar and Hamsa Dwar.
  • A sculpture of the named creature stands at each door.

Gaja Dwar:

  • The Gaja Dwar is named after the elephant.
  • It represents intellect, memory, wealth and wisdom.
  • This gate is on the north side of the building, which according to the vaastu shashtra, is associated with Mercury, believed to be a source of intellect.
  • They are believed to be the harbingers of prosperity and happiness.

Ashwa Dwar:

  • Ashwa Dwar is named after the horse.
  • A horse symbolises power, strength and courage, qualities that are desirable in governance.

Garuda Dwar:

  • Garuda stands for the king of birds. Garuda is presumed to be the mount of Lord Vishnu.
  • It is at the third gate.
  • The association of this gate with Lord Vishnu, the preserver in the Hindu trinity, makes Garuda a symbol of power and dharma (duty).
  • The Garuda gate stands at the eastern entrance of the new Parliament building.

Makara Dwar:

  • The legendary sea creature which is a combination of different animals names the fourth gate, Makara Dwar.
  • It is a common motif for entrances and Makara sculptures are seen in Hindu and Buddhist monuments which are spread across South and Southeast Asia.
  • While Makara is seen as the representative of India’s unity in diversity, Makara sculptures at doorways are also seen as protectors.
  • This dwar faces the entrance to the old Parliament building.

Shardula Dwar:

  • Shardula is the name of the fifth gate and is named after another mythological creature which has the body of a lion, but the head of a horse, elephant or parrot.
  • A note by the government mentioned that the presence of Shardula on the new parliament building’s gate is symbolic of the power of the people of the country.

Hamsa Dwar:

  • The last and the sixth gate of Parliament is Hamsa Dwar which is named after the swan.
  • It is the mount of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge.
  • The flight of Hamsa symbolises moksha or liberation of the soul from the cycle of birth and death.
  • This sculpture is a symbol of self-realisation and Wisdom


Why in news?

IIT Jodhpur is harnessing snake venom for antibiotic resistance.

More in news:

  • Researchers from IIT Jodhpur have developed an antimicrobial peptide from snake venom that can combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria and promote wound healing.
  • It is a potentially exciting lead in the development of novel biocidal agents.
  • It displays a robust capability in neutralising gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It can promote wound healing, and act as a disinfectant.


Why in news?

Shantiniketan in West Bengal included in UNESCO World Heritage list.

About Shantiniketan :

  • Shantiniketan was established by RabindranathTagore in 1901.
  • It is situated in the Birbhum district in West Bengal, India.
  • Santiniketan stands as a beacon of the vision and contributions of Maharshi Devendranath Tagore and his illustrious son, Rabindranath Tagore.
  • Beyond its academic and cultural significance, Santiniketan captivates visitors with its breathtaking natural beauty.
  • Lush green forests, sprawling fields, and a serene environment create an idyllic setting that exudes tranquility.
  • It was a residential school and centre for art based on ancient Indian traditions and a vision of the unity of humanity transcending religious and cultural boundaries.
  • A ‘world university’ was established at Santiniketan in 1921, recognising the unity of humanity or “Visva Bharati”.
  • It was distinct from the prevailing British colonial architectural orientations of the early 20th century and of European modernism.
  • Santiniketan represents approaches toward pan-Asian modernity, drawing on ancient, medieval and folk traditions from across the region.